1 [abc] a, b, or c (simple class)

2 [^abc] Any character except a, b, or c (negation)

3 [a-zA-Z] a through z or A through Z, inclusive (range)

4 [a-d[m-p]] a through d, or m through p: [a-dm-p] (union)

5 [a-z&&[def]] d, e, or f (intersection)

6 [a-z&&[^bc]] a through z, except for b and c: [ad-z] (subtraction)

7 [a-z&&[^m-p]] a through z, and not m through p: [a-lq-z](subtraction)

X? X, once or not at all

X* X, zero or more times

X+ X, one or more times

X{n} X, exactly n times

X{n,} X, at least n times

X{n,m} X, at least n but not more than m times

Reluctant quantifiers

X?? X, once or not at all

X*? X, zero or more times

X+? X, one or more times

X{n}? X, exactly n times

X{n,}? X, at least n times

X{n,m}? X, at least n but not more than m times

Possessive quantifiers

X?+ X, once or not at all

X*+ X, zero or more times

X++ X, one or more times

X{n}+ X, exactly n times

X{n,}+ X, at least n times

X{n,m}+ X, at least n but not more than m times

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